Tag Archives: slingshot

10 Amazing Mountain Bike Innovations That Didn’t Stand the Test of Time

Mountain biking has a rich and varied history, and this richness was at its zenith during the 90’s. That era saw a big-bang of innovations – some of which are still with us today, while others, including some that seemed like fantastic innovations at the time, have fallen out of favour and slipped into obscurity and ridicule.

1. Elevated chainstays

Photo credit: this mtbr.com thread.

This iconic design of frame (said to have been invented by Richard Cunningham) started to appear around 1988, and lasted well into the mid 90s, the elevated chain stay (or e-stay) gained a cult following, but never came close  to replacing the classic double-triangle frame design.

E-stay frames allowed for greater clearance for the rear wheel, a shorter wheel-base for better climbing and manoeuvrability, elimination of chain-slap, and the ability to remove a chain without breaking it.

For many, these advantages outweighed the downsides, which included additional weight, and some extra lateral flexibility and weakness in the bottom bracket area.

A fair few e-stay frames eventually snapped or cracked after sustained but not excessive use – particularly those built from aluminium or titanium. It’s still possible to find e-stay frames for sale on ebay or retrobikes, mostly in steel, but with the odd uncracked aluminium or titanium specimen.

The rise in popularity of 29″ and 650b wheeled mountain bikes has rekindled interest in elevated chain stays, as a way to have a shorter wheel-base when using big wheels: There are already e-stay 29er prototypes going around. It would be rather ironic if a modern innovation like large wheels were to now lead mountain bikers back to an extinct design like the e-stay.

2. The Slingshot

Image credit: this mtbr.com thread.
The 90’s also saw the arrival of the Slingshot, yet another eye-catching and quirky frame design. With a hinge where the top tube and seat tube join, and a steel cable on a coil spring replacing the down tube, the manufacturer claims the design provides some suspension and more efficient use of energy. I’m not entirely convinced of its positive effect, but it doesn’t appear to do any harm. Nonetheless, it’s telling that it has remained sufficiently popular for its manufacturer to remain in business even today.

3. Lawwill Leader suspension fork


Designed by Mert Lawwill, this incredible looking suspension fork benefited from a single shock unit, constant fork rake during compression, and stiff steering.

These features would have been valued during the 90’s, especially when most other suspension forks were about as stiff as a soggy noodle.

4. The Girvin linkage fork

Image credit: this mtbr.com thread.

Another innovative linkage fork, this usually came as standard on the K2 / Pro Flex range of full suspension bikes. Like the Lawwill, these forks gave stiff steering and a unique look – some loved them, other hated their look.

5. Suspension stems


Before the advent of suspension forks, suspension stems were a cheap way to dampen trail-buzz. Some riders complained of sore wrists as a result of the change in angle of the handlebar. Others found the substantial side to side flex unnerving, when using bar-ends and sprinting out of the saddle.

Curiously, at least one company (StaFast) is now manufacturing suspension stems for modern mountain bikes. It’ll be interested to see if suspension stems make a come-back.

6. Pro Flex full suspension bikes

Photo credit: Pro Mountain Biker by Jeremy Evans and Brant Richards.

With a Girvin fork and split seat tube frame design, Pro Flex full suspension bikes looked pretty awesome. The pro XC riders of the 90s usually preferred to have the rear suspension locked out to avoid wasting too much energy bouncing up and down – not that they admitted it in public, of course.

7. Klein Mantra

Image credit: mombat.

Using what may have seemed like a good idea on paper – placing the rear suspension pivot on the top tube – the Klein Mantra was pretty awful, by most accounts.

A few riders liked the absence of suspension bob while pedaling, the main issue for most reviewers seems to have been the way the rear suspension only works when the rider is seated. Unsurprisingly, these are among the cheapest of vintage the Kleins.

8. Cannondale Headshok

Another cool looking suspension fork, the Cannondale Headshok gave steering similar to a fully rigid fork, but with a couple of inches of suspension travel. It worked fine in dry, Californian conditions, but in muddy northern European conditions, the seals just weren’t enough to keep the moving parts clean and functional for very long.



At one time I was considering buying one of these frames, as they were deemed among the best XC full suspension frames, because the rear suspension system stiffened up while pedaling. Fortunately, more sensible designs have now taken hold in the world of XC full suspension!


I still might get hold of one, though!

10. Glued frames

Around 1990 Raleigh UK and Raleigh USA developed a new range of mid to high-end mountain bike frames, partly constructed using aerospace bonding technology. The three main tubes were glued into steel or aluminium lugs, resulting in frames that were lighter and stronger than welded or lugged and brazed frames.


Initially the frames were made from steel, like the example below:


But later, Raleigh UK started using titanium main tubes and an aluminium head tube, to reduce weight and give some of the benefits of titanium’s resilience. The examples below (M Trax 300 and Dynatech Diablo STX) come from my collection.

Raleigh M Trax 300
Raleigh M Trax 300
Raleigh Dynatech Diablo STX

Note the bonded steel and aluminium fork on the Dynatech Diablo SXT.

Instead of titanium or steel, Raleigh USA opted for aluminium main tubes in the Technium range, which gave slightly different ride characteristics and weight.

5 Ways Mountain Bikes Were Better In The 90s

Modern mountain bike technology is incredible. The arrival of decent suspension, hydraulic disc brakes, tubeless tires, and many other innovations all help today’s hard-core mountain bikers go faster than ever before, for longer, over more challenging terrain.

The contrast with the technology we used in the 90s couldn’t be any stronger. It’s actually quite hard to believe we rode off-road with rigid forks, cantilever brakes, and so few gears, and lived to tell the tale.

Few would seriously argue that modern mountain bikes are not better overall than their 90s ‘retro’ ancestor, but here are some ways that 90s mountain bikes were better…

1. Low maintenance, low cost

One of the great things about mountain bikes during the 90s was their simplicity. No shocks to tune up, no hydraulics to bleed. Keeping your bike in good working order was pretty easy, and rather cheap by today’s standards.

Thinking about going out for a ride? Just grab the bike, check the tire pressure, squeeze the brakes, double check the most crucial bolts are tight enough, and off you go.

2. Just one wheel size

When everybody used 26 inch wheels, borrowing a suitably sized replacement inner tube from a riding buddy was a heck of a lot easier than today, what with 26 inch, 650b and 29 inch. A single size of wheel also made thing simpler when upgrading to the latest frame – just fit your existing wheels to the new frame, without worrying about whether to make the jump to a trendier wheel size.

3. Steel bikes, built to last

As a material for frames and cycling components, steel is hugely under-rated. Steel is cheap, strong, fatigue resistant, and easy to repair. Rear mech hangers can be bent back into alignment numerous times before they are ruined; damaged or rusted tubes can be removed and replaced; disc tabs can be added easily to usher a retro steel frame into the 21st century.

It’s true that steel frames and components are not the lightest, yet they aren’t overly heavy and some would argue the strength of steel is worth the slight weight penalty compared to aluminium or carbon. In any case, weight doesn’t matter much these days, judging by the 28-30 lb weights of most mid-range modern mountain bikes.

There is also an argument to be made that steel bikes are the ethical choice. A good, hand-made steel frame will last a lifetime if cared for properly. Choosing this over far-eastern aluminium or carbon will significantly reduce the ‘carbon footprint’ of your bike, and as such will help the environment – you know, the wilderness and countryside we ride in.

4. Shifters that allow you to trim your front derailleur

I’ve never understood the need for having indexed front gears. Not only are shifts between chain-rings much less frequent than shifts on the rear cassette. But indexing also forces you to use a single front derailleur position, which can take a lot of tuning to get just right. When not perfectly tuned, the chain can grind noisily on your front derailleur’s chain-guide when using gears at the extreme ends of your cassette.

This is (or was in the 90’s) easily solved if your gear levers are thumb-shifters or grip-shift, because both allow micro-adjustment of your front derailleur. Goodbye grinding chain, hello perfect front derailleur alignment!

5.  Bikes were lighter despite all that steel

Back in the 90’s, a mid-range mountain bike would have weighed in at somewhere around 24-25 pounds – significantly lower than the 28-30 pound weight of a typical mid-range mountain bike today.

However, concerns about bike weight seems to be more about vanity than performance. Dwarfed by a rider’s body weight, the weight of your mountain bike is barely worth worrying about. Unless you find yourself regularly carrying the bike over obstacles, or your bike is super-heavy, just lose some body weight instead.